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强化型多模态阅读教学模式对初二学生英语阅读焦虑的影响研究

作者:优质论文王老师 日期:2021-09-17 13:09:09 点击:105

Abstract:With the deepening of the study of second language acquisition from the perspective of cognition, people are more and more aware of the importance of affective factors in second language acquisition and find that attitude, motivation and anxiety are the main affective factors which may influence the speed and effectiveness of foreign language learning. As one of the important channels of language input and language acquisition, reading ability determines the quality of language learning. In the meanwhile, cultivating students' reading ability is considered as one of the main tasks in junior high school English teaching. However, in the current English reading teaching, junior high school students suffer quite often from reading anxiety. Domestic and foreign scholars thus have attempted to give different countermeasures from different perspectives to overcome reading anxiety. Since “the New London Group” applied multimodality to the field of language teaching in the 1990s, scholars around the world have been working hard to carry out related studies. The rise of multimodal teaching provides a new perspective for dealing with reading anxiety. The research questions proposed in this study are:

1. What is the current situation of Junior Two students' reading anxiety?

2. Is it possible to reduce Junior Two students' reading anxiety through intensive multimodal reading teaching mode? If yes, such multimodal reading teaching mode may reduce what reading anxieties caused by different factors?

This study adopted both qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the effect of intensive multimodal reading teaching mode on reading anxiety among Junior Two students. Firstly, the author conducted a questionnaire survey among 238 Junior Two students in five classes of A Middle School in Dali City, aiming to find out the current situation of students' English reading anxiety. Then, two classes were selected as the experimental class and the control class respectively. The quasi-experimental study of intensive multimodal reading teaching mode was performed. Students from the two classes had similar level of reading anxiety and reading achievement, and were taught by the same teacher. The intensive multimodal reading teaching mode was adopted in the experimental class while the control class was taught in the usual way as before. Intensive multimodal reading teaching mode in the experimental class refers to the use of three or more modalities to carry out reading teaching with multimedia as an important teaching means. The reading teaching of the control class is based on the language modality found in the textbook as the only source of teaching material with just visual and linguistic modality. The teacher uses no more than three modalities in the control class.

The teaching experiment lasted for one semester. After the experiment, the foreign language reading anxiety scale was used to investigate the experimental class and the control class again. Then, the data of the first and the second questionnaires of the two classes were compared and analyzed. At the same time, independent sample t test and paired sample t test were carried out. The study found that:

Junior Two students have an overall above average level of English reading anxiety. The five factors causing English reading anxiety rank from high degree to low degree as follows: “affective factor”, “text understanding”, “cultural background”, “learning method and habit” and “teaching mode”. Moreover, there is significant difference in reading anxiety between boys and girls. Compared with girls, boys are more likely to experience reading anxiety. From the five factors influencing reading anxiety, significant differences are found between boys and girls in terms of “text understanding”, “learning method and habit” and “teaching mode”. However, there is no significant difference in the two factors “affective factor” and “cultural background” between boys and girls.

In addition, through intensive multimodal reading teaching, the reading anxiety level of the experimental class students decrease, and the number of students with reading anxiety also decrease significantly. It demonstrates that the intensive multimodal reading teaching mode can relieve students' reading anxiety. Specifically, the multimodal reading teaching mode can alleviate the reading anxiety caused by “text understanding”, “cultural background”, “affective factor” and “teaching mode”. However, there is no significant effect on reading anxiety caused by “learning method and habit”.

This study offers some inspirations on how to reduce and control students' reading anxiety. In the process of teaching, teachers should make full use of teaching materials and other modal resources so as to create a low anxiety environment, and pay more attention to the factors that may cause students' reading anxiety so as to lower their reading anxiety and thus improve their reading abilities.

Keywords: modality; intensive multimodal reading teaching; reading teaching; reading anxiety 

摘要

随着认知视角下第二语言习得研究的深入,人们越来越意识到情感因素在第二语 言习得中的重要性并发现态度、动机、焦虑是影响外语学习的速度和效果的主要情感 因素。阅读作为语言输入以及语言习得的重要的渠道之一,阅读能力的高低决定了语 言学习的好坏。同时,培养学生的阅读能力是初中英语教学的主要任务之一。然而, 在当前初中英语阅读教学中,学生普遍存在阅读焦虑。自二十世纪九十年代“新伦敦 小组”将多模态应用于语言教学领域以来,世界各地的学者都在努力开展相关研究, 多模态教学的兴起为解决阅读焦虑提供了新的角度。本研究拟提出的研究问题如下:

1.      初二学生英语阅读课堂中的阅读焦虑处于什么状况?

2.      开展强化型多模态阅读教学模式,是否能降低初二学生英语阅读焦虑?如果是, 能够缓解哪些因素引起的阅读焦虑?

本研究采用定性和定量结合的方法探讨强化多模态阅读教学模式对初二学生阅读 焦虑的影响。笔者首先对大理市 A 中学的 5 个班 238 名初二学生进行问卷调查,旨在 发现初二学生的英语阅读焦虑现状。然后在这 5 个班中选择 2 个班分别作为实验班和 对照班,开展强化型多模态阅读教学模式的准实验研究。这两个班阅读成绩,阅读焦 虑水平,大致相同,并且由同一老师教。在实验班采用强化型多模态阅读教学,在控制 班中沿用平时的教学模式。实验班的强化型多模态阅读教学模式是指在阅读教学中, 教师以多媒体为重要教学手段,运用三种及以上的模态来开展阅读教学。控制班的阅 读教学即以语言模态为主,教师以教材为唯一的教学资源,依赖教材中的语言模态和 视觉模态,所使用的模态不超过三种。

本次教学实验持续一个学期,在实验结束后再次使用外语阅读焦虑量表对实验班 和对照班进行焦虑程度调查,然后和第一次两个班的数据做分析,基于两次问卷的结 果进行独立样本 t 检验和配对样本 t 检验。研究发现:

初二学生的英语阅读焦虑水平处于中等偏上的水平。在影响英语阅读焦虑的五个 因素中,导致焦虑程度由高到低依次为“情感因素”、“文本理解”、“文化背景”“学习 方法和习惯”、“教学模式”。其次,男女生阅读焦虑存在显著差异,男生的阅读焦虑比 女生更强。从影响阅读焦虑的五个因素来看,男女生在“文本理解”、“学习方法和习 惯”、“教学模式”这三个因素上存在显著差异,但是在“情感因素”和“文化背景” 这两个因素差异不显著。

本研究还发现,通过开展强化型多模态阅读教学,实验班学生的阅读焦虑水平有 所下降,控制班没有变化,说明强化型多模态阅读教学模式能缓解学生的阅读焦虑。 具体来说,多模态阅读教学模式可以缓解由“文本理解”,“文化背景”,“情感因素” 和“教学模式”引起的阅读焦虑,但对“学习方法和习惯”引起的阅读焦虑没有显著 的影响。

本研究对如何缓解和控制学生的阅读焦虑有一定的启发。在教学的过程中,充分 利用教材及以外的各种模态资源,营造低焦虑环境,更多的关注引起学生阅读焦虑的 因素,从而降低学生的阅读焦虑,以提升他们的阅读能力。

关键词:模态;强化型多模态阅读教学;阅读教学;阅读焦虑

Contents

Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................................................................... I

Abstract.................................................................................................................................................. II

摘要 .................................................................. IV

List of Tables...................................................................................................................................... VII

Chapter One Introduction.................................................................................................................... 1

1.1      Background of the Research                           1

1.2      Purpose of the Research                           6

1.3      Significance of the Research                           6

1.4      Structure of the Thesis                           6

Chapter Two Literature Review .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

2.1      Theoretical Framework                           8

2.1.1       Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA)              8

2.1.2       Hypothesis of Affective Filter               10

2.1.3       Hypothesis of Input               12

2.2      Foreign Language Reading Anxiety.................................................................................. 14

2.2.1       Definitions of Related Terms              14

2.2.2       Previous Studies on Foreign Language Reading Anxiety               16

2.3      Multimodal Teaching                           19

2.3.1       Definitions of Related Terms              19

2.3.2       Definition of Multimodal Teaching               22

2.3.3       Previous Studies on Multimodal Teaching Mode               23

Chapter Three Methodology ........................................................................................................................................................................ 33

3.1      Research Questions                           33

3.2      Research Participants                           33

3.3      Research Instruments                           36

3.3.1       Questionnaire               36

3.3.2       Test........................................................................................................................... 39

3.3.3       Interview              40

3.4      Research Procedures                           40

3.5      Teaching Procedures in the Experimental Class                           41

Chapter Four Research Results and Discussion............................................................................. 60

4.1      The Current Situation of English Reading Anxiety in Junior Two Students                           60

4.1.1       Descriptive Statistical Analysis of Reading Anxiety in Junior Two Students               60

4.1.2       Analysis on Gender Differences of English Reading Anxiety               62

4.2      The Influence of Intensive Multimodal Reading Teaching Mode on Reading Anxiety of

Junior Two Students ............................................................................................................................................... 64

4.2.1       Comparison of English Reading Anxiety of the Experimental Class between

Pre-test and Post-test...................................................................................................  65

4.2.2       Comparison of English Reading Anxiety of the Control Class between Pre-test and

Post-test ...................................................................................................................................................  67

4.2.3       Comparison of English Reading Anxiety between the Experimental class and the

Control Class in Post-test........................................................................................ 68

4.2.4       Comparison of the Number of Students with English Reading Anxiety...........  69

Chapter Five Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................................ 70

5.1      Main findings                           70

5.2      Pedagogical Implication of This Research........................................................................ 71

5.3      Limitation and Recommendation for Future Study.......................................................... 73

References ........................................................................................................................................................................ 75

Appendixes............................................................................................................................................ 79

Appendix I Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale ........................................................................................................................................................................ 79

Appendix II Reading Test............................................................................................................ 82

Appendix III Interview................................................................................................................. 86

读研期间的学术成果................................................ 93

List of Tables

Table 1 Descriptive Statistics Analysis of Demographic Characteristics34

Table 2 Reading Achievement of Test between CC and EC ........................................................................................................... 34

Table 3 Independent Sample t- test of Five Factors between CC and EC in Pre-test ............................................................. 35

Table 4 KMO and Bartlett's Test ........................................................................................................... 37

Table 5 The Factors of English Reading Anxiety Questionnaire ........................................................................................................... 37

Table 6 Factor Analysis..................................................................... 38

Table 7 Reliability Analysis ........................................................................................................... 39

Table 8 Information of Interviewees................................................. 40

Table 9 Teaching Plans..................................................................... 42

Table 10 The Structure of Intensive Multimodal Reading Teaching ........................................................................................................... 43

Table11 The Usage of Modality in Intensive Multimodal Reading

Teaching Mode............................................................................................. 47

Table 12 The Schedule of Collecting Data........................................................................................................... 58

Table 13 Descriptive Statistics on the Five Factors of Reading Anxiety 60 Table 14 Analysis on Gender Differences of English Reading Anxiety .63 Table 15 Paired Samples t test on Pre-test Results and Post-test Results in the Experimental Class ........................................................................................................... 65

Table 16 Paired Samples t test on Pre-test and Post-test Results in the

Control Class............................................................................................. 67

Table 17 Independent Sample t- test of Five Factors between CC and EC in Post-test ........................................................... 68

Table 18 The Number of Students with English Reading Anxiety in the

Control Class............................................................................................. 69

Table 19 The Number of Students with English Reading Anxiety in the

Experimental Class............................................................................................. 69 

Chapter One Introduction

This chapter mainly includes four parts: background of the research, purpose of the research, significance of the research, and structure of the thesis.

1.1    Background of the Research

The intensive multimodal reading teaching answers the call of the times.

Halliday (1978) proposed that human beings exchange information in a variety of ways, and language is just one of them. Language includes written and spoken language. In oral communication, the communicator can convey the meaning through tone, intonation, speed of speech and various body languages. In addition to oral language, written language is equipped with complementary tools like images and charts to express meaning. Meanwhile, with the development of science and technology, the Internet has become the main source of information, and the transmission of information is no longer presented in language. Thus, Language is no longer the only means of communication in modern written discourse. Multiple sources like newspapers, magazines, advertisements, posters, storybooks, textbooks, encyclopedias, brochures and computer interfaces facilitate our interaction with each other in a multimodal manner (Hu, 2007). The multimodal nature of modern discourse is gaining prominence, and it is said that multimodality is the basic feature of modern discourse. Because of the simplicity of language as the only mode, it can neither bring readers visual enjoyment, nor convey rich meaning, which means the multimodal discourse is a requirement of modern people.

With the increasingly abundant means of expressing the meaning of discourse in social activities, the traditional means of expressing meaning mainly through language has been gradually replaced by the combination of various media. Multimodality embodies the normal state of social practice, and becomes an inherent feature of present social and cultural system. How is meaning generated in multi-media social activities and multi-modal cultural systems has become a new

topic in contemporary research.

Under such circumstances, multimodal discourse analysis has become a hot topic. The smooth completion of teaching activities cannot be separated from the comprehensive application of various modalities. However, foreign language teaching in a multimodal manner has lasted for 20 years. The development of discourse analysis theory shows that the meaning of discourse is not completely embodied in language itself, but through various non-verbal patterns, such as gestures, expressions. Especially, with the development of modern new media, such as computer, network and so on, multimodal discourse has become a new type of discourse (Zhang, 2015).

Since American linguist Harris put forward the research direction of discourse analysis in the early 1950s, scholars around the world have made great effort to investigate the role of modality in foreign language teaching. After that, Stein (2000) proposed that the multimodal teaching emphasizes the indivisibility of the body and brain through multimodality, multi-sensory interaction. Generally speaking, multimodal reading teaching means that teachers use sound, pictures, animation and other channels in the classroom to mobilize students' multi-sensory response, so that students can actively participate in the dynamic process of language learning that focuses on cultivating students' reading ability and promoting students' language learning through joint participation and cooperation. Foreign empirical studies have proved the great influence of multimodal reading on students' reading ability. However, most of the foreign studies only focus on the modal application of multimodal teaching and the effect of multimodal resources, like pictures or words, but ignore the whole process and modal combination of multimodal teaching(Nouri & Shahidy, 2005; Segers, Verhoeven & Hulstijn・Hendrikse, 2008; Jewitt, 2006; Oakley, Wildy & Berman, 2020). Then Chinese researchers gradually realized the importance of multimodal teaching in English teaching and made some studies of multimodal teaching. Many scholars in China (Li, 2003; Hu, 2007; Zhu, 2007; Zhang, 2009) have introduced the theory of multimodal discourse analysis, and the technology of multimodal discourse analysis has also developed rapidly. “The research object has been extended from language to music, picture, image, web design and other social symbol systems” (Zhu, 2007).

In the society where multimodality becomes the norm of human communication and meaning generation, the fineness and connotation of meaning generation will far exceed the meaning that single language modality can generate. Visual, auditory, tactile and other social symbol resources are gradually combined with language to express certain discourse meaning. The emergence of these two trends has brought profound influence to teaching, especially English reading teaching.

As far as English reading teaching is concerned, computer technology and information network technology provide rich multi-modal discourse resources, which can help students integrate into the situation and context, and obtain more opportunities for English learning and the use of language.

The requirements of the curriculum standards.

The Nine-year Compulsory Education English Curriculum Standards (2012) clearly points out that English teachers should develop curriculum resources and expand their channels of English teaching: English courses should strive to make rational use of and actively develop curriculum resources. English teachers should actively use audio-visual, television, books, magazines, network information and so on. Multimodal teaching combines text, image, video, animation, sound and other resources to generate more powerful function. It can provide all kinds of scenes and atmosphere for English teaching. Thus, the new curriculum put forward new requirements for teachers and students.

A few years later, the 2017 edition of Ordinary High school English Curriculum Standards saw the presentation of the concept of multimodal discourse, which emphasizes the addition of corresponding pictures, audio and so on to the traditional reading text. The teachers should pay attention to the application of modern information technology and enrich learning resources. Language skills include comprehension skills of listening and reading, as well as expressive skills of speaking and writing. These two types of skills complement each other in the process of language learning. The 2017 edition of the curriculum standard adds “viewing” skill to language skills, which fully shows that it is more and more important to cultivate students' multiliteracy. It also means that understanding multimodal discourse requires observing the information in the chart and using traditional text reading skills to understand the meaning of symbols and animations. Although this curriculum standard is aimed at high school students, considering that junior high school students and high school students have shared background of times, it also has great reference significance for junior high school students.

The current situation of English reading teaching.

Reading in language skills usually refers to the ability to understand meaning using graphics, tables, animations, symbols, and videos in multimodal discourse. As an important way of English learning, reading is the basis of mastering language knowledge, obtaining information and improving language ability. Cultivating students' reading ability is the main task of English teaching at all levels in China.

However, many rural middle schools in Dali City, the teacher still uses the traditional teaching mode. This kind of teaching mode is based on the language modality found in the textbook as the only source of teaching material with just visual and linguistic modality. The teacher pays attention to the teaching of language form, which means that a coherent text is often dismembered into fragmented language materials. The core ideas, writing styles and language features of the article all disappeared. Students are only interested in language knowledge that is directly related to the examination, but ignore the overall context. Therefore, they often make mistakes in reading comprehension, which is thought-provoking. In this process, the teachers cannot properly use new media to assist teaching, and cannot form a multimodal benign interactive teaching. In the long run, students are prone to reading anxiety.

The role of English reading anxiety in English reading.

In English teaching, affection refers to the feelings, emotions and attitudes of learners in the process of learning. Affection and cognition are integral parts of language learning, and they complement each other. According to some studies (Arnold & Brown, 1999), when people are in a negative affective state, cognitive activities will stop themselves. Even if they do not stop, it is difficult to achieve good results. “Affection serves multiple functions in foreign language learning, memory aid, motivation, regulation and others” (Stern, 1983).

The influence of affective factors on second language acquisition has been recognized in academic circles. However, the influence of affective factors on language learning and its mechanism are still under discussion. As an individual subjective psychological factor, it has the characteristics of instability and variability. The research from the perspective of affective factors is rare and not systematic in the study of second language acquisition. However, it does not mean that affective factors can be ignored in second language acquisition and there is no need to study them in depth. On the contrary, with the deepening of the study of second language acquisition from a cognitive perspective, people are increasingly aware of the importance of affective factors in second language acquisition. Thus, the impact of affection on language learning cannot be ignored. Stern (1983) has asserted that “affective factors have at least the same impact on language learning as cognitive factors and are often greater”. Therefore, the research value of affective factors is as important as the study of cognitive factors.

Nowadays, the study of cognitive factors has made some achievements, the study of affective factors is particularly urgent. The affective factors affecting language learning include learners' motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. Foreign language reading anxiety is a negative psychological emotion that hinders reading. This paper mainly studies the role of foreign language reading anxiety in second language acquisition.

Moreover, in language teaching, reading anxiety can affect students' learning effect. Meanwhile, many researchers suggest that there is a negative correlation between students' English reading anxiety and English reading achievement. In other words, the lower the reading anxiety of middle school students are, the higher the students' reading achievements are. (Horwitz et al., 1986; MacIntyre & Gardner, 1989; Young, 1991; Sellers, 2000; Razak, Yassin & Maasum, 2017; Concepsion & Celesio, 2019). In this case, better academic performance can be achieved by reducing students' reading anxiety.

1.2    Purpose of the Research

First, this study attempts to find out the current situation of junior two students' reading anxiety, and investigate whether intensive multimodal reading teaching is helpful in dealing with students' reading anxiety. If intensive multimodal reading teaching can alleviate students' reading anxiety, the author will further explore the types of reading anxiety that can be reduced by this teaching mode.

Second, the purpose of this study is to awaken junior-high-school English teachers' awareness of the importance of multimodal reading teaching, especially that of the teachers in rural areas. In this process, it provides theoretical guidance for English teachers to effectively integrate teaching resources, and explores the methods of effective English reading teaching in junior high school in minority rural areas.

1.3    Significance of the Research

So far, the study of foreign language learning anxiety and multimodal teaching respectively has made great achievements. There are also many strategies to solve foreign language reading anxiety. However, there is little attention to alleviate reading anxiety through multimodal reading teaching. Reading is an important way for students to obtain information, and reading anxiety is one of the important factors affecting reading effect. Applying intensive multimodal reading teaching to junior two students not only provides a reference for English teachers to alleviate students' reading anxiety, but also offers a domestic case in the following two areas: multimodal English reading teaching and reading anxiety.

1.4    Structure of the Thesis

The thesis consists the following five parts.

The first chapter is the introduction that covers research background, the purpose and the significance of this research, and the whole structure of the thesis will be introduced.

The second chapter is literature review, which includes theoretical framework, the concepts of multimodal, multimodal reading teaching and foreign language reading anxiety. It also introduces previous researches on multimodal reading teaching. In addition, the definitions of the related terms will be presented in this part, including anxiety, foreign language anxiety and foreign language reading anxiety. Previous studies on foreign language reading anxiety also will be summarized.

The third chapter is methodology. In this part, research questions, subjects, instruments, teaching procedures and the treatment of data will be elaborated.

The fourth chapter is results and discussion, in which the results will be analyzed and discussed by analyzing the data.

The last chapter is conclusion, where the main finding and implication of this research will be summarized firstly, and the limitations and suggestions will be given. 

Chapter Two Literature Review

This chapter is mainly composed of three parts. First part is the theoretical framework of this study. Second, the definitions of the related terms (anxiety, foreign language anxiety and foreign language reading anxiety) and previous studies on foreign language reading anxiety will be summarized. Third, the definitions of the related terms (mode, medium, modality, multimodality, multimodal and multimodal teaching) and previous studies on multimodal reading teaching will be presented.

2.1    Theoretical Framework

2.1.1    Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA)

“Multimodal discourse refers to the use of hearing, vision, touch and other feelings, through language, image, sound, action and other means and symbolic resources in communication” (Zhang, 2009). Multimodal discourse was not taken seriously until the study of modern linguistics emerged. Then scholars began to study it as an auxiliary expression system of language, but not as a mode of meaning expression. In recent years, with the emergence of multimodal discourse, as an independent frontier academic field, its importance has been widely recognized.

Multimodal discourse analysis theory is mainly based on Halliday' system-functional linguistics. Most of the meaning of discourse is reflected by non-verbal factors in communication, such as accompanying language features (loudness, tone, intonation, sound speed, etc.), physical features (gestures, body, facial expressions, movements, etc.), and non-physical features (PPT equipment, network, etc.). In this case, communication is no longer carried out with one sense, but with two or more senses at the same time. For example, PPT teaching is carried out with vision and hearing at the same time. The discourse produced in this form of communication is multimodal discourse. In a word, multimodal discourse is a phenomenon that uses senses (hearing, vision, touch, etc.), language, image, sound, action and other means and symbolic resources to communicate.

Since the American linguist Harris put forward the research direction of discourse analysis in the early 1950s, it has attracted the attention of scholars all over the world. One of the earliest researchers in multimodal discourse analysis was the R. Barthes. He, in his paper Rhetoric of the Images, discussed the interaction between image and language in the meaning of expression. However, it was not until the 1990s that multimodal discourse analysis really developed. The study of multimodal discourse from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics was initiated by Kress and Leeuven (2001).

Based on the theory of systemic functional linguistics, Zhang (2009) was devoted to constructing a comprehensive theoretical framework of multimodal discourse analysis, which consists of four levels of system, including cultural level, contextual level, content level and expression level. The cultural level is the key level that makes multi-modal communication possible. The tradition, the form and the technique of communication are all decided by this level. Because this level includes the ideology of human thinking, philosophy of life, habits of life and the hidden rules of all societies. The contextual level is restricted by the mode, tone and scope of discourse. The content level consists of the meaning level and the form level. The expression level is conveyed and expressed by the media. Media includes both linguistic and nonverbal modes. This theoretical framework is important for multimodal foreign language teaching, which emphasizes that multi-modal complementation, coordination, collocation and association can effectively express meaning.

In short, multimodal discourse analysis refers to the analysis of the various modalities that people use in the process of communication in order to achieve communicative purpose.

The role of multimodal discourse analysis in second language acquisition is mainly reflected in modal selection. In foreign language teaching, the basic factors that dominate modal selection are: the field involved in the teaching content (discourse scope); the situation of the teaching object;the relationship with the instructor (discourse tone) and teaching conditions and places (discourse mode).

These factors can be specifically described as:

(1)    Discourse scope: the content of the course to be taught, including depth, difficulty.

(2)    Discourse tone: the teacher's personal characteristics, including character, hobby, specialty, goal, etc.; the basic characteristics of students, including their existing knowledge structure, interest, ability structure, etc., and the relationship between them; It also includes the purpose of communication between communicators, such as imparting knowledge, improving ability, improving quality, etc.

(3)    Discourse mode: equipment condition, teaching environment, communication channel, etc. (Zhang, 2009).

2.1.2    Hypothesis of Affective Filter

Krashen (1985) put forward the affective filter hypothesis in the early 1980s. Affection refers to the feelings, emotions and attitudes of learners in the process of learning. Affection and cognition are integral parts of language learning, and they complement each other. According to some studies (Arnold & Brown, 1999), they pointed out that when people are in a negative emotional state, people's cognitive activities will be affected negatively.

Affective factors played a filtering role in language input first proposed by Dulay and Burt. On that basis, Krashen (1985) developed it into affective filter hypothesis. It is considered that “affective filtering is a psychological obstacle that prevents language learners from fully absorbing the understandable input obtained”. The affective factors affecting language learning include learners' motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. Krashen regard affective factors as adjustable filters, which makes it easier or harder for learners to understand language input.

The filtering effect of emotion on language input can be fully illustrated by Krashen's emotion filtering flowchart below.

Affective filtering is like a valve. When it is closed, language input is blocked out, which is difficult to enter the language acquisition device in the brain. The more obstacles, the lower the ability to acquire language. On the contrary, when the valve is

fully opened, a large number of understandable language inputs enter the language

acquisition device without hindrance.

Figure 1 Krashen's Hypothesis of Affective Filter

Krashen (2001), summing up the past experience of second language teaching, pointed out that “affective filtering is the main reason for personal differences in foreign language learning, and the following main affective factors affect the speed and effect of foreign language learning”. The first factor is attitude. Attitudes refers to the evaluation and behavioral tendency of an individual to an object. The second factor is motivation. Motivation is some kind of internal drive that encourages somebody to pursue a course of action (Harmer, 1991). The third one is anxiety. From psychological perspective, anxiety is defined as “a status of apprehension, a fuzzy fear that is only indirectly associated with an object” (Scovel, 1978). Dulay (1982) pointed out that “the good and bad of foreign language learning achievement can be distinguished by the degree of anxiety”. Anxiety is caused by personal factors or learning environment, which can be divided into “state anxiety” and “ability anxiety”. The former refers to a general trend of anxiety in learning, while the latter is anxiety in specific foreign language learning situations. The last one is self-confidence. Self-confidence is a positive view and evaluation of one's ability and knowledge level.

Classroom is the main place for students to learn, a good learning environment will greatly promote the learning effect. How to use the hypothesis of affective filter in classroom to create an atmosphere of low emotional filtering, promote students' language acquisition is something. It is critical for a good lesson. If teachers want to receive good English teaching results and improve the overall level of students' English learning, they must attach the importance to affective factors, promote students to form a positive affective attitude, and make students willing to learn.

2.1.3    Hypothesis of Input

English reading is mainly accomplished by input process and accumulation. The input hypothesis points out that language performance is gradually understood and mastered with the accumulation of language input. Krashen (1985) put forward comprehensive input, which emphasizes that the input of language is aimed at being absorbed and internalized. “i” is the current proficiency of language learners. “i” means language input is slightly more than students can accept, or the distance between the current state of language knowledge and the state of language knowledge in the next stage. “i+1” is the level of comprehensible input, so the selection of language input should be in the scope of “i+1”. Only when learners reach the level of comprehensible input can it have a positive effect on second language learning. The difficulty of input material is measured by students' comprehension ability, too deep and too shallow is not appropriate, learners can only learn by understanding.

According to Krashen's input hypothesis (1985), the most effective inputs are as follows:

(1)   Input should be understandable. For learners, if the input material is not understood, it will not only be ineffective, but also damage the learners' enthusiasm for learning.

(2)   Input should be interesting or relevant. It can, to some extent, enhance the language acquisition effect. When learners have a strong interest in language, the anxiety in the learning process is reduced, which is the best state of language input.

(3)   Not grammatically sequenced. Learners do not need to acquire a language in accordance with the acquisition order of grammatical procedures. Language acquisition should be produced in a natural environment. Grammar based language input, the quality of comprehensible input is reduced, which destroys the focus of communication. It is a kind of boring language input.

(4)    The number of “i+1” should be guaranteed.

According to the above theory, reading materials slightly higher than their actual level should be selected for readers. At the same time, readers should have a certain amount of input in order to improve their reading learning efficiency. If the English language input received by students is difficult to understand, boring or does not follow the grammatical order, it will make students have English reading anxiety. In view of this, the input hypothesis plays an important role in the process of second language acquisition, so that we can understand the essence of English reading anxiety and find solutions.

In the language environment without target language, the language information of target language mainly comes from classroom and textbook. Teaching materials and teachers are often the main sources of information in English language in many places in our country, especially in rural middle schools. Reading teaching is often limited to written language, which lacks vitality. With the rapid development of technology, various social symbol resources, such as vision, hearing and touch, are gradually combined with language to express certain discourse meanings. These changes have had a profound effect on second language acquisition. Apart from that, the development of multimodal discourse analysis theory and second language acquisition theory provide theoretical guidance for second language education. Reading accounts for a large proportion of English teaching, but most teachers still teach students in traditional teaching methods, which is not conducive to the cultivation of students' multiliteracy ability. In this learning situation, students are prone to anxiety. In language teaching, reading anxiety can affect students' learning effect. The development of information technology has promoted the innovation and reform of English teaching ideas, teaching methods and educational procedures. Therefore, English teaching and learning have undergone great changes in methods, multimodal teaching has become a major trend. Through multimodal teaching methods, teachers make full use of multi-modal resources to enrich students' input and make students at the best input level--- i+1. In this process, teachers create a relaxed learning environment for students, the role of affective filtering will become smaller. As a result, students will learn better.

2.2    Foreign Language Reading Anxiety

The development of humanism and Krashen's second language acquisition theory is accompanied with the growing attention to the impact of affective factors on students' second language learning input. With the deepening of the study of second language acquisition from the perspective of cognition, people are increasingly aware of the importance of affective factors in second language acquisition. Therefore, the influence of emotion on language learning cannot be ignored. Anxiety, as a major affective factor is worth studying (Arnold, 2005). The anxiety of foreign language classroom is different from that of other subjects. Foreign language classes are especially prone to anxiety and are prevalent in foreign language classes.

2.2.1    Definitions of Related Terms

Anxiety

Many foreign researchers have given us different definitions of anxiety. Horwit (1986) claimed that “anxiety is a subjective feeling of tension, botheration. Chinese scholars also given us the definition”. Zhang (1994) defined anxiety as an uneasiness of the mood because of the individual cannot achieve a certain purpose. Wang and Wan (2001) hold the same view, that is, anxiety is an emotional state of fear, because individuals are unable to achieve their goals or overcome the threat of obstacles, which frustrates their self-esteem and self-confidence, or increases their sense of failure and guilt.

Foreign Language Anxiety

As the main affective factor (Arnold, 2005) in language learning, foreign researches on foreign language anxiety have made many achievements. Since the 1980s, the study of language learning anxiety has made a great breakthrough. The concept of foreign language anxiety was first put forward by Horwitz (1986). He explained that “foreign language anxiety is a unique and complex synthesis of self-awareness, beliefs, emotions, and behaviors associated with language learning process in the classroom”. And then he divided second language classroom anxiety into test anxiety, communication apprehension and fear of negative evaluation. Test anxiety is defined as the tendency to look at insufficient results in the process of investigation with fear (Sarason, 1978). Communication apprehension refers to anxiety characterized by fear or worry when communicating with others, which is a shy reaction (Horwitz, et al., 1986). Negative evaluation anxiety is an anxiety caused by learners' fear of receiving negative evaluation. A few years later, MacIntyre and Gardner (1991) enriched Horwitz's opinion. They pointed out that anxiety is one of the most important factors affecting individual differences in foreign language learning. They divided foreign language learning anxiety into input anxiety, processing anxiety and output anxiety from the stage of foreign language anxiety. The input stage refers to the initial experience of the learner at a specific time with a specific stimulus, and the input is related to the initial representation of the memory entry. The processing stage involves the cognitive operation of the subject such as the organization, storage and assimilation of the material. The output involves the output of previously learned materials.

Foreign Language Reading Anxiety

Foreign language reading anxiety was first proposed by Saito, Horwitz and Garza. Foreign language reading anxiety is a negative psychological affection that hinders reading. Foreign language learning anxiety is a part of foreign language anxiety. Saito et al. (1999) hold that English reading anxiety is a kind of bad emotion that readers display in English reading. Foreign language anxiety is a specific anxiety caused by the difference of writing system and unfamiliar cultural background between mother tongue and target language. It is common in English reading. Zbornik (2001) proposed that reading anxiety is a concrete, situational fear response during reading. This reaction is manifested not only in the human body but also in the reader's cognitive response. Body reaction is reflected in sweating, panic, etc. Cognitive response is reflected in shame, self-esteem frustration and so on, which hinders the brain's input and understanding of reading information. Therefore, it reduces reading efficiency and affects language acquisition.

2.2.2    Previous Studies on Foreign Language Reading Anxiety

Since the 1940s, anxiety has attracted foreign language researchers' attention. In the 1950s, researchers were interested anxiety in the field of educational psychology. After the 1960s, researchers focused on the correlation between anxiety and learning achievement. MacIntyre and Gardner (1991) suggested that anxiety not only affects the total score of foreign language, but also has a negative effect on the specific aspects of foreign language learning.

Many researchers have investigated the sources and factors that lead to reading anxiety. Rajaba, Zakariab, Rahmanc, Hosnid and Hassanie (2012) investigated that linguistic, cultural and curriculum factors will cause reading anxiety. Moreover, some researchers revealed that there are five sources of reading anxiety including reading effect, fear of making mistakes, unknown vocabulary, unfamiliar topic and unfamiliar culture (Al-Shboul et al., 2013; Genc, 2016). Subasi (2014) supplemented the sources of foreign language reading anxiety from a new perspective. He investigated Turkish learners and revealed six sources of reading anxiety, which includes personal reasons, teaching procedures, teachers' manner in the teaching process, examination anxiety, text characteristics and learners' past experience.

The latest research in recent years also offered us new ideas. Razak, Yassin and Moqbel (2019) used foreign language reading anxiety scale (FLAS) to determine the level and the source of foreign language reading anxiety among Yemeni students at the University of Malaysia. The research results highlight an important point in the investigation of foreign language reading anxiety that environment and host culture are the source of learning anxiety. Besides, GENQER and DEMiRGUNE§ (2019) pointed out that there is no significant difference between students' reading anxiety level, gender and grade level. According to the latest findings of the study, students' reading anxiety levels are significantly different from those with lower reading frequency. Students with less reading have more reading anxiety. In addition, Saito, Garza, Horwitz (1999) found that students' reading anxiety levels increased with their perceptions of the difficulty of reading material, and their reading achievement decreased in conjunction with their levels of reading anxiety and foreign language anxiety.

Other researchers conducted their studies from different aspects. Kuru-Gonin carried out two consecutive studies in Turkey: 2005 and 2009. He found that foreign language anxiety is different from the specific skill of language learning, namely reading. There are other researches like Saito (1999), Sellers (2000) also shared the same idea (Saito, 1999; Sellers, 2000).

Later, the researchers have had a deeper understanding of reading anxiety. For example, Concepsion and Celesio (2019) explored the relationship between three variables: language anxiety, reading anxiety and reading achievement. The study found that male students suffer from higher language and reading anxiety. However, the degree of language anxiety of female students is higher. There is a significant relationship between students' English scores and their language and reading anxiety. Reading anxiety might have a negative impact on learner's reading achievement. On the contrary, some researchers believed that reading anxiety may have a positive effect on students because this feeling urges students to spend more time to reading, it will avoid losing self-confidence and improve their reading performance (Horwitz et al., 1986; Young, 1991; Sellers, 2000; Razak &Yassin 2017; Sellers, 2000).

Moreover, Petrus and Shah (2020) discussed the relationship between reading anxiety, strategies and language ability of English learners in rural middle schools. EFL reading anxiety instrument (EFLRAI) and reading strategy survey (SORS) were used to measure the level of anxiety and reading strategy. They found that there was a weak positive correlation between reading strategy and language ability. The study showed that rural ESL learners experience moderate reading anxiety when reading English materials, and the usage of strategies is positively related to language ability. Although rural ESL learners' experience of reading anxiety is not strong, adopting appropriate reading strategies can improve learners' language ability.

In China, the study of foreign language learning anxiety focused on students' listening and speaking skill. There are some examples as follow. Rui and Ji(2017) applied multimodal teaching mode to college English listening and speaking classes. They studied that college students' oral anxiety and classroom silence. The study lasted 16 weeks. The result illustrated that multimodal listening and speaking teaching can effectively relieve students' oral anxiety, and classroom silence has improved. Xiang, Wan and Yan (2020) took 152 non-English major college students as the subjects, they found out the main factors that lead to learners' oral anxiety. The results showed that English proficiency and classroom activity types are two main factors leading to English anxiety. Niu (2020) pointed out that the multimodal listening teaching mode can alleviate the listening anxiety of secondary vocational college students.

In addition, some domestic scholars published some researches about anxiety and classroom participation. There are some instances. Hai (2014) used 150 freshmen and sophomores from Xi'an International Studies University as participants. She found that there are negative correlation of foreign language classroom anxiety and classroom participation. The result also showed that Students with high anxiety have low confidence in foreign language. Li (2011) and Chen (2019) came into the same conclusion. While, the latest study is a study of foreign language anxiety in other ways. Zhang, Yan and Chen (2021) explored the mechanism of affective factors on English cooperative learning, such as motivation, willingness to communicate and anxiety. They came up with a different conclusion. They found that foreign language learning anxiety has no significant negative effect on cooperative learning input.

Meanwhile, a group of Chinese researchers focused on investigating English reading anxiety. Chinese researchers have investigated the relationship between English reading anxiety and English reading achievement, but there is no uniform conclusion. Some researches proposed that reading anxiety and reading achievement showed negative correlation (Qiu & Liu, 2007; Shi & Liu, 2006; Zhao, Ying & Dynia, 2013; Chen, 2005). Other researchers have come up with different ideas. Deng (2003) indicated that reading anxiety has both positive and negative effects on reading efficiency, while moderate adjustment of learners' anxiety is beneficial to improve reading efficiency. And then, Pu and Shi (2010) made a similar point. Moreover, Zhang and Guo (2021) further discussed that the relationship between foreign language reading anxiety level and reading achievement. They found that students' foreign language reading anxiety level and reading achievement is affected by the difficulty of reading task. In the difficult reading task, there are significant differences between middle and higher anxiety students and low anxiety students in reading achievement, but there is no significant difference in easier task. Teng (2020) gave the same conclusion using the English reading anxiety scale to investigate freshmen in Zhejiang Province.

Last but not least, the researchers studied whether there were gender differences in English reading anxiety. Some researchers suggested that there is no significant difference in reading anxiety and classroom anxiety between male and female students, but the English achievement of boys was significantly lower than girls (Qiu & Liu, 2007; Xu, 2019; Liu, 2019; Pan, 2018). However, other researchers have given us different results. Shi and Zhang (2006) tested 211 non-English majors using the foreign language reading anxiety and foreign language classroom anxiety scale. The results showed that boys' reading anxiety was significantly higher than that of girls. Hu (2020) gave the same conclusion by investigating the Myanmar students in five universities in Kunming. Instead, some researchers pointed out that reading anxiety of boys was higher than that of girls (Wang, 2003; Shi & Liu, 2006).

2.3    Multimodal Teaching

Mode, media and modality are often used in multimodal discourse analysis. Because of interrelated nature of the terms, the boundaries are blurred. Thus, the distinction should be made in the following concepts: mode, medium, modality and multimodality.

2.3.1    Definitions of Related Terms

Mode

Kress & Jewitt (2006) stated that “a mode is socially and culturally shaped resources for making meaning. Image's writing, layout, speech, moving image are examples of modes, all used in learning resources”. In China, Zhu (2007) also gave us a clear definition of mode who believed that mode generally refers to the mode of discourse, which are one of the three elements (model of discourse, field of discourse and tenor of discourse) of the context. For example, spoken mode, written mode, electronic mode is the channel of communication. To some extent, the use and changes of these patterns affect the flow of information and texture.

Medium

Kress and Leeuwen (2001) pointed out that the material media has been shaped by the society for a long time and becomes the resource of meaning, which can express the meaning of communication between different societies, which has become mode.

Zhang (2008) defined media as the media of all symbolic systems. But because of the special position and function of language in human communication, it can be divided media into linguistic media and non-verbal media. From the perspective of traditional linguistics, there are two kinds of media forms: sound symbols and writing symbols. The development of information technology has supplemented the traditional media, but its media is still sound or character.

Non-verbal media can be divided into body media and non-physical media. Communicator's body media includes movements formed by the movement of the head, facial expressions formed by the state of the face, media symbols formed by the movement of the mouth to form a smile and the movement of the nose and ears, media symbols formed by arms and legs, media symbols formed by the movements of the torso, such as posture, movement, swing, simulation, and so on. Non-physical media include all other media that are not physically realized through the communicator, such as the tools used by the communicator, the channels to achieve communication and the communication environment. With the development of modern science and technology, the communication media outside the body of the communicator becomes very developed, such as sound equipment, pictures, music, network platform and so on.

Modality

Modality is the core term of multimodal discourse analysis, which is the channel and medium of communication including language, sound, image, music, color, material, font space, distance and other symbolic systems. In essence, multimodal discourse is the result of the comprehensive role of the five sensory channels in the process of communication. These five sensory channels include auditive channel, visual channel, tactile channel, olfactory channel and gustatory channel.

From a physiological point of view, Zhu (2007) believed that human beings receive information from the outside world mainly through the five senses, eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, modality can be distinguished according to the type of senses. Thus, the modality can be divided into the following five: visual modality, auditive modality, olfactory modality, gustatory modality, tactile modality.

Multimodality

Different scholars have given their own understanding and definition of multimodality. Levine & Scollon (2004) pointed out that multimodality is a variety of communication modes. In other words, in the process of using language, whether spoken or written, language must be constructed by multimodality in communication, including language, posture, the design, paper and typesetting in the files we present. Jewitt (2011) believed that multimodality is something closer to expression, communication and interaction than language, which is a combination of some resources. Bateman (2017) explained that multimodality is a way to represent the typical characteristics of communication situations by combining different forms of communication, such as book writing language, pictures, charts and page design. This definition reflects the richness of technology development to multimodal presentation methods. Chinese scholars also put forward their own views on multimodality. Gu (2007) proposed that multimodality refers to the way in which humans interact with the external environment (such as people, machines, objects, animals, etc.) through the senses (such as vision, hearing, etc.) Interaction with a single sense is called single modality, two is called double modalities, and three or more is called multimodality. At the same time, Zhu (2007) held the same view about multimodality. Zhang (2009) also gave the definition of multimodality. In his opinion, multimodality is a phenomenon that uses a combination of sensations (tactile, auditive, visual) through language, image, sound, action, other means and symbolic resources to communicate.

In short, the relationship between mode and media is form and entity. Modes are media-based material that can be used for communication and can be achieved through the media. Modality means communication channel and media, including language, technology, images, colors, music and other symbolic systems. Multimodality refers to the way in which humans interact with the external environment through the senses. Interaction with a single sense is called single modality, two is called double modalities, and three or more is called multimodality.

2.3.2    Definition of Multimodal Teaching

It is necessary to explain multiliteracy before introducing multimodal teaching. The New London Group first put forward the concept of multiliteracy in1996. They believed that the cultivation of students' multiliteracy should be the main task of language teaching. Hu (2007) defined multiliteracy as an ability to read the various media and modes of information that can be accessed and produce the corresponding materials accordingly.

Stein (2000) who proposed multimodal teaching believed that the multimodal teaching emphasizes the indivisibility of the body and brain through multi-modal, multi-sensory interaction. It can be explained that teachers in the classroom should use a variety of modes (sound, pictures, animation and other channels) to mobilize students' multi-sensory response, so that students actively participate in the dynamic process of language learning. Multimodal teaching can cultivate students' multiliteracy and promote students to learn language through joint participation and cooperation. Generally speaking, multimodal teaching refers to the selection and provision of three or more modalities for students according to the content of the

teaching, the environment and the goals to be achieved. Multimodal reading teaching refers to the application of multimodal teaching in reading teaching.

In order to distinguish from the traditional reading teaching mode, which is based on the language modality found in the textbook as the only source of teaching material with just visual and linguistic modality. Meanwhile, due to the ubiquitous modalities in the class and the development of science and technology, teachers inevitably use multimedia equipment for teaching. Intensive multimodal reading teaching mode is actually the strengthening of the multimodal reading teaching.

Intensive multimodal reading teaching mode in this study refers to the use of three or more modalities to carry out reading teaching with multimedia as an important teaching means (for example, on the basis of the presentation of teaching materials, teachers present a large number of visual modalities, rich body language, auditory modalities). Intensive multimodal reading teaching mode emphasizes the synergy of multimodalities.

In order to avoid modality abuse, Zhang (2009) summarized the principle of the choice of modality. The teachers should try their best to choose a variety of effective measures and methods, especially technical means. But in the order achieve better teaching results, the principle of optimization is the first choice. Guided by this general principle, there are several interrelated principles: the principle of effectiveness, the principle of adaptation, and the principle of economy.

The effective principle indicates that the selection of any modality should be based on the premise of obtaining better teaching effect, avoiding the invalid use of a modality, or the negative effect produced by it.

The adaptation principle indicates that when selecting different modalities, the cooperation between different modalities should be taken into account.

2.3.3    Previous Studies on Multimodal Teaching Mode

Since American linguist Harris put forward the research direction of discourse analysis in the early 1950s, scholars all over the world have been working hard to carry out research in related fields. They proposed a variety of discourse analysis theories and methods, which are basically language-based. This means that they only pay attention to the language system and semantic structure itself and its relationship with sociocultural and psychological cognition, ignoring other forms of expression of meaning such as image, sound, color, animation and so on. With the progress of the times and the development of science and technology, multimodal discourse analysis arose in the West in the 1990s, which could largely help overcome these limitations.

Barthes is the first researcher who focus on multimodal discourse analysis. In 1997, Barthes elaborated the role of images in the process of discourse communication in his book, Rhetoric of the Image, which also laid the foundation for the later research on multimodal theory.

After the 1990s, many important multimodal researches appeared. O'Toole applied Halliday systemic functional grammar theory to visual image analysis. Kress & Leeuwen (2001) established the theoretical framework of visual-image grammar. And they also discuss the relationship between mode and media in their work the Multimodal Discourse--the Modes and Media of Contemporary Communication. Their views have contributed greatly to the development of multimodal theory, and also promoted the establishment of multimodal theory. At the same time, “the New London Group” first put forward the concept of multiliteracy in1996. They believed that the cultivation of students' multiliteracy and multi-modal meaning should be the main task of language teaching. After that, researchers have applied multimodal discourse analysis to language teaching. Stein (2000) who proposed multimodal teaching believed that the multimodal teaching emphasizes the indivisibility of the body and brain through multi-modal, multi-sensory interaction. In his view, teachers should use a variety of modes (sound, pictures, animation and other channels) to mobilize students' multi-sensory response, so that cultivate students' multiliteracy and promote students to learn language.

Since the 20th century, the Internet shapes the way we read: from linear to more modal. Video, music, social media and multidimensional hypertext contribute to the field of multimodality in L2 language teaching. Furthermore, developing L2 leaners' multiliteracy has become a hot topic as the new technologies emerge. In recent years, there are various empirical studies are carried out. Thus, many researchers have focused on multimodal teaching and reading materials.

Nouri and Shahidy (2005) divided the students into control group and experimental group to carry out empirical research. The experimental group carried out PPT reading demonstration teaching, and the control group carried out traditional text reading teaching. The results show that PPT reading demonstration teaching is helpful to improve students' reading comprehension ability and short-term memory, but has no effect on students' long-term memory. However, the 10 questions used in this study questionnaire lack reliability and validity.

Segers et al. (2008) used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to study children's multimedia text learning. The result shows that oral statements produce better results than written statements when accompanied by pictures. Vaarala and Jalkanen (2010) discussed the advantages and challenges of teaching L2 reading comprehension in multimodal learning environment. They studuied college students from Europe and they study Finnish as a second language. They pointed out that L2 learners benefit from multimodal digital texts reading and web-based learning platform compared to traditional reading comprehension courses. Oakley, Wildy and Berman (2020) used multimodal digital texts (tablets, and open-ended creative apps) to investigate five-year-old children in low socioeconomic areas in Western Australia. Teachers used multimodal teaching for more than three semesters, children's oral language and writing, as well as reading had improved after the experiment. Jewitt (2006) confirmed that the various symbolic meanings in the classroom will not only affect teachers' teaching attitude and methods, but also affect students' participation and learning effect. However, in his view, if the multimodal resources are not used reasonably in the classroom, it will cause constraints in improving students' ability. In 2008, Yandell presented a practical study of multimodal reading and writing in a middle school English classroom in a multicultural city. Teachers and students' oral and writing abilities have been improved through the synergy of different modalities in the classroom.

With the development of online teaching, multimodal learning platforms, such as online learning platform and mobile APP, can mobilize various resources and systems to build a multimodal autonomous learning environment for English learners. Some researchers study multi-modal teaching mode from the perspective of online teaching under this background.

Morgan (2013) discussed how teachers use multi-mode e-books to promote children's learning efficiency in reading. This study meets the needs of the digital age, but neglects the empirical support, in addition, Morgan does not adopt quantitative research methods to collect data.

Choi and Yi (2016) conducted an empirical study on two teachers who use multimodality to teach ELL within online English teaching. They found multimodal teaching enhance learners' confidence. They pointed out that the problems surrounding technology and the lack of support from the administrative department are constraints in integrating multimodal teaching into the classroom environment. Huang (2020) studied on adult English learners in online teaching under the epidemic situation. The author adopted multimodal teaching mode. Teacher should integrate teaching resources to stimulate adult learners' interesting. He thought that the advantages of online multimodal teaching mode are becoming more and more obvious. Meanwhile, multimodal teaching mode not only improves learners' multiliteracy, but also cultivates their practical ability and innovative spirit.

From the above researches, we can see that most empirical studies have proved the great influence of multimodal reading on students' reading ability. However, most of the current studies abroad only focus on the modal application of multimodal teaching and the effect of multimodal resources, such as pictures or words, and ignore the whole process and modal combination of multimodal teaching. In addition, the research method is not enough to determine the practical effect of multimodal teaching.

The study of multimodal teaching began abroad, and then Chinese researchers gradually realized the importance of multimodal teaching in English teaching and made some studies of multimodal teaching. Domestic studies on multimodal teaching quite late. In recent years, domestic scholars have also begun to pay attention to the study of the relationship between multimodal and teaching. They have done a lot of researches on multimodal teaching from different perspectives.

Li Zhanzi is the earliest scholars in China to introduce multimodal discourse. He proposed that the use of multimodal discourse analysis in English teaching will have a positive significance. Image teaching should fully understand the difference and connection between image and language (Li, 2003). Since then, many domestic experts have also begun to study multimodal, they pay more attention to study the relationship between multimodal teaching and foreign language teaching.

Zhu (2007) provided a theoretical basis and analytical method for domestic scholars in the future. In the same year, a paper called Analysis of Multimedia and Multimodality Learning written by Gu (2007) was published. In his paper, the distinction between multimodal learning and multimedia are made. Moreover, he constructed a framework of multimodal foreign language learning. In addition, Gu makes two assumptions about the relationship between English learning and multimodal: first, proper modal transformation can enhance learners' internalization of what they have learned and improve the persistence of memory; second, the same modality learning process is easier than the modal transformation. From 2009 to now, Zhang has published several papers on multimodal field research, including exploring the comprehensive theoretical framework of multimodal discourse analysis, applying multimodal discourse theory and media technology to foreign language teaching, exploring the design of multimodal foreign language teaching, and modal coordination. They mainly studied the application of multimodal theory to foreign language teaching from the macro level, which include theoretical analysis and the construction of teaching modes.

Since the introduction of multimodal teaching into foreign language teaching, many domestic scholars have tried to apply it to English reading teaching. The microscopic study of multimodal foreign language teaching is mainly reflected in the application of multimodal theory to foreign language teaching practice.

From the perspective of multimodal reading teaching, most of Chinese researchers focused on the relationship between multimodal teaching and learners' reading performance. There are some instances. Ruan and Dai (2012) studied the relationship between language input in multimodality and reading effect. The result shows that it has a more positive effect on readers' mental process and memory. They also suggested that as a foreign language teacher, we should put forward new requirements to ourselves according to the cognitive rules of contemporary teenagers, learn and make full use of modern technology such as network and multimedia, and provide a more natural and relaxed reading environment as far as possible in teaching. Lu and Mou (2014) took non-English majors as the research object, the influence of multimodal teaching on college students' English reading performance was investigated. The score of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group, indicating that the multimodal teaching is conductive to improve students' understanding and memory ability of English reading.

On the basis of studying multimodal teaching and reading achievement, Yang (2019) further studied the correlation of three variables: multimodal teaching, reading achievement and reading attitude. The results also show that multimodal teaching plays a significant role in improving students' reading scores, and students' reading ability. In addition, he pointed out that multimodal teaching helps students to change negative reading attitude. In a word, the results show that multimodal teaching has a positive effect on junior high school English reading teaching.

At the same time, some researchers have focused on studying students' multiliteracies to read in multiple ways. There are some examples. Wan (2010) classified multimodal resources in written texts. The necessity of developing learners' multiliteracies in English language reading teaching is emphasized. What's more, teacher can try to cultivate students' multiliteracies from the following aspects: teachers' overt instruction, students' targeted practice and making full use of multi-modal resources outside written discourse to carry out corresponding extracurricular activities. Wu (2020) compared the multiliteracies pedagogy with the traditional English reading class. She found that the level of senior high school students' multiliteracies and reading ability are promoted. Geng (2020) also came to the same conclusion.

Moreover, some researchers in China take minority students as research subjects, but these kinds of studies are few. For example, Peng (2020), taking Tibetan college students as the research object, pointed out that the multimodal teaching mode has improved the students' reading achievement, it has enhanced the Tibetan college students' interest in English reading. In order to compare and analyze the influence of the two teaching modes on students' reading comprehension, the multimodal reading teaching mode is used in the experimental class and the traditional reading teaching is used in the control class. The results showed that multimodal reading teaching is helpful to improve students' reading comprehension. Multi-modal teaching can stimulate students' interest, concentrate students' attention and improve students' participation in class.

Some researchers studied multimodal English reading teaching from the perspective of teaching strategies. For example, Liu (2015) explored the teaching model and English reading teaching strategies of multimodal English reading teaching. Liu (2018) also summarized the value and strategies of multimodal English reading teaching. The strategies of multimodal English reading teaching include the following four steps: the analysis of students and teaching materials, multi-modal teaching design and resource organization, multi-modal teaching process and monitoring, multi-modal teaching assignment and reflection.

Similar to foreign researchers, some Chinese researchers have studied multimodal teaching from the perspective of the presentation of reading resources. Wang & Jiang (2015) used the story part of PEP edition of primary school English book to explore the integration of graphic and text resources in multi-modal foreign language teaching. On the one hand, multimodality texts are used to promote the development of pupils' foreign language ability, mind and thinking ability. On the other hand, primary school foreign language teachers can use the multi-modal English story part in English textbooks to cultivate the traditional virtues of honesty, sharing, fairness and justice of primary school students, so as to achieve the teaching goal of English subject. Wu (2014) found that the reading effect of multimodal text is better than that of pure text, which is more helpful to the improvement of students' reading level. Multi-modal text, such as image, color, print format and visual representation, not only can stimulate reading interest effectively, but also enhance multi-modal reading consciousness.

In addition, a group of Chinese researchers focus on investigating the relationship among multimodal reading teaching, reading motivation and reading achievement. Liu (2020) applied multimodal reading teaching to two parallel classes in a senior high school. The whole teaching experiment lasted 16 weeks. The experimental class carried out and the control class carried out routine reading teaching. The experimental class carries out multi-modal reading teaching, and the control class carries out routine reading teaching. He found that multimodal teaching is beneficial to changing students' English reading motivation positively, arousing students' interesting and enthusiasm. Multi-modal teaching also can obviously promote the improvement of students' English reading comprehension ability, deepen students' understanding and memory of discourse, and broaden their knowledge.

Furthermore, some researchers studied the relationship among multimodal reading teaching, class anxiety and reading achievement. For instance, Zhang (2018) explored the influence of multi-modal teaching mode on junior high school students' English reading comprehension level and classroom anxiety. Zhang stated that students at different levels have improved their reading comprehension ability under multimodal teaching mode. Middle-level students have made the greatest progress in English reading. Secondly, the multimodal teaching mode significantly alleviates students' reading classroom anxiety.

To sum up, at first the domestic researches mainly focus on the exploration and research of the theoretical framework of multimodal and foreign language teaching, and then the empirical researches between multimodal and foreign language teaching are gradually appeared. From multi-modal research perspective, research content, research objects are also increasing and expanding. Multimodal reading teaching not only can improve students' reading achievement, memory efficiency, reading learning efficiency, but also enhance students' ability to understand and construct discourse meaning as a whole. At the same time, it has a positive impact on cultivating students' reading interest. Although linguists at home and abroad have done a lot of research on the application of multimodal teaching, there is still a gap in the research on the influence of multimodal teaching mode on students' reading anxiety. Especially the empirical research with junior high school students as the research object. According to the review of previous studies, we will find that the studies of multimodal reading teaching mainly focus on the influence of multi-modal reading teaching on students' English reading achievement, reading interest, reading attitude and so on.

The study of multimodal reading teaching and reading anxiety has been studied in respective disciplines by many researchers at home and abroad. However, the previous studies also have some limitations: there are few studies on the combination of these two topics. In addition, the research subjects are mainly college students and senior high school students, a few researches on junior high school students. Meanwhile, the majority of the subjects are mainly confined to Han nationality students. There are few researches from the perspective of minority students. For minority students, English is their third language. Moreover, the vast majority of scholars focused on listening, speaking and writing in the theoretical basis and applied practice of multimodal teaching. In contrast, there are few empirical studies combining multimodal teaching with English reading teaching. All in all, these literatures gave me the hints to explore the correlation between multimodal teaching and reading anxiety for junior high school students. In this thesis, the author will use qualitative and quantitative method to explore the relationship between multimodal reading teaching and reading anxiety for junior high school students. It can enrich present empirical study and will be helpful for future study for English pedagogy in the middle school, helping the teachers to handle the issues arose by English teaching as well as the students to adjust their learning condition.

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